The Mongolian language belongs to the Mongolian group of the Altaic language phylum. The basis of the state language of Mongolia went halhassky dialect, which is spoken by the majority of the population.
For centuries, the Mongols had five different writing systems and alphabets. One Uighur writings began to be used with X-XIII centuries, going a long way: the Phoenicians Sughdians Uighurs Khitan.
Khitan used “great writing Khitan,” similar to the Chinese hieroglyphic, and in 925 announced “a small writing Khitan”, probably borrowed from the Uighurs. Signs of Mongolian letters are written from top to bottom and right to left. There are special ways of cursive and the rules of reduction of words. Old Mongolian script is still used in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (China).
In 1269 a monk Phagva by order of Kublai Khan, on the basis of the Tibetan alphabet, compiled the Mongolian alphabet (letter square), which was used for a century until the fall of the Yuan dynasty (1260-1368).
In 1986, the head of the Buddhist Church Undur Gegen Zanabazar made the alphabet of signs ideograms “Soyombo.” It includes letters, based on the spelling of 16 vowels and 34 consonants of the Indian Sanskrit. Some difficulties in writing the letters of the alphabet prevented its widespread use in the nation.
In 30-ies of XX century. Mongolians began to use letters, but they are used only for writing headlines and posters.
In Mongolia, the Mongolian 1945 letter is replaced by the letter of the Russian alphabet based on the Cyrillic alphabet. By letters of the Russian alphabet were added two more – the fit and Izhitsa – to transmit specific Mongolian language sounds of the front row. By 1950, as a result of the struggle against illiteracy all Mongols learned to read and write. Illiteracy has been wiped out in a short time, and Mongolia for the first time in its history, has acquired a single script.
Since 1978, interest in the revival of the old Mongolian script increases dramatically, and it has been included in the curriculum of secondary schools. In 1990na background populist statements was adopted a decree on returning to the old Mongolian script, the implementation of which was supposed to take 10 years. However, until now this issue has not been resolved. In the Mongolian language, a lot of modern word came from the Russian and English languages.