However, not only the archaeological and architectural monuments of antiquity are the treasure of Mongolian culture. She can be proud of and its literature. Mongolian literature has many genres and long history. Mongolian literary works of the early and medieval period are written in ancient Mongolian writing.
The oldest monument of Mongolian literature – “Mongolyn Nuuts Tovchoo” (Secret History) dates back to 1240 It is kind of chronicle of Genghis Khan, the Mongolian history of the formation of the state. The real facts are interspersed it with the epic legends. After the first Mongolian chronicle followed by others; true works of XV-XVI centuries. did not reach us, but they are known in the later retelling of the chronicles of the XVII century .: “Altan tovch” (“The Golden Legend”), “Ball tuuzh” (“Yellow narration”) and the like. Chronicle genre continued to exist in the XVIII century, and even in the XIX century. In the XVIII century. were fictional versions of epic works – “Geserhan”, “The Story of Khan Harangue” et al., namtary- biographies, surgaaly – collections of aphorisms; were in vogue manuscript collections genres ritual poetry (eroolov – good wishes, magtaalov – praise, etc..). In XVII-XVIII centuries. in connection with the spread of Buddhism there are many translations of Buddhist writings, mostly from Tibetan, but their numbers fell and Indian product, getting more popularity in Mongolia. These are the tales of Panchatantra cycle, a collection of “Magic of the Dead”, a poem of Kalidasa, Nagarjuna and other instructions.
At the beginning of the XIX century. Mongolian literature remained faithful to the previously-established traditions. Lingering Mongolian Middle Ages to a large extent regulated the form and content of the Mongolian culture in general. It continues to pose historical chronicles, in which included excerpts from the writings of previous centuries, various pieces of literature and legends, poetic aphorisms. Several of these works: the anonymous (probably Ordos) “Blue Book” (“Hohe debter”), dating from the turn of the XVIII and XIX centuries. and outlines the events from the Creation to the reign of the Mongol rulers and their descendants; Khalkha “Golden Rosary” (“Altan erihe”, 1817) Arya Pundits Gumbo and “Precious beads” (“Erdene-yin erihe”, 1835) Ishibaldana, uratskaya chronicle “Crystal Mirror” (“Bolor Toli”, 1837) and Dzhambadordzhi Finally, one of the most significant – “Precious beads” (“Erdene-yin erihe” 1842 or approx. 1860) Khalkha author tayiji Galdana. All these works are generally characterized by the active use of Tibetan and Chinese sources, most of them put a lot of places in Asia, the spread of Buddhism in Mongolia; at the same time account of the events it is becoming increasingly businesslike and malohudozhestvennym. In accordance with the trends discovered in the previous period, the way historiography and fiction strongly disagree, although some attempts to use are marked in the narrative epic images and plots.
Continue circulation of Mongolian People’s handwritten works of the world literature: epic tales (primarily individual chapters and vaults Geseriady), stories about going to the afterlife (about Molontoyne, Naran Gerel, Choydzhid-Dakini), collections of “framed” prose and texts accompanying the various (including shamanic) ceremonies. Much attention is also paid to translation of Tibetan literature, processed and transferred to the Indo-Tibetan Buddhist stories from the various writings appear treatises on the theory of poetry, compiled the Mongolian classical language grammar, dictionaries (one of the standard recognized by the Tibetan-Mongolian dictionary compiled Lama Agvandandarom); various comments.
In the spiritual life of society ever greater role played by Buddhism, which patronize and Mongolian feudal lords and the Qing government. In the minds of the Mongols religious, cultural and literary focus on Tibet and India opposed Sinification and as such has become a factor in the preservation of national identity. In the development of literature continues to play a significant role Tibetan language, which are written in a variety of works, including on philology; sometimes with the help of the Tibetan alphabet written even literary works composed in the Mongolian language.
Tibetoyazychnoe Mongolian writers work, which began in XVII-XVIII centuries., Continues the tradition of Zaya Pandita Lubsan Prinleya, Sumba, Hambo Ishibaldzhira, Dzhandzhahutuhty Rolba Dordzhe. It should be called the Alashan Dandar-lharambu (1759-1842), whose poems interspersed in his religious and philosophical writings contain various moral teachings; Khalkha scholar and writer Lama Aghvan Hayduba (1799-1838), author of a number of religious and philosophical and artistic works; major poet of the XIX century. Rabdzhaa, who wrote both in Tibetan and Mongolian.
Ongoing development of the dwarf-didactic literature, traditions which date back to the XIII-XIV centuries. It is more Buddhist updated content, testing the effect of the Tibetan and Chinese literature. In line with gnome-didactic tradition, a new genre of HS (word or words) – imbued with Buddhist sentiments moralizing discourse, monologic or dialogic, often embedded into the mouth of animals; occasionally like speech “pronounced” people and even objects. This form is compliance on the one hand, in the ancient Mongolian literature (Chinggis speech horses in the medieval epic poem about them), and on the other – in the national folklore (tales about animals, parables, etc..), Whose influence is very significant. Basics corner of the genre in the works laid Aghvan Hayduba. For example, in his “Discourse of sheep, goat and bull” for slaughter animals cry out in vain for mercy of their master Lama, in “Conversations with shaggy pundit Tserinpelom” (or “conversation shaggy Tserinpela with his dog”) watchdog wins the upper hand in the dispute on his master Lama. Further development of the genre comes in a number of anonymous works whose authors followed Aghvan Haydubom denounce sin from the Buddhist point of view, the killing of animals and castigate human vices (“Talk sheep, goats and a bull,” “This mouse uttered in jest,” “Speech and crows magpies, who, speaking, sitting on the wall, “” The story of how the shared poetic speeches prazdnoumny Lama nicknamed scattered and his nightingale with a quick mind “,” Speeches lark and the Swan “). In addition to the works of this kind of moralizing maxims can detect criticism of the clergy, opposed to the safe life of citizens the vicissitudes of existence full of steppe pastoralists, discussion of other moral and philosophical and social problems.
The golden age of the genre HS reached in the poet-improviser Huulchi Sandag (1825-1860). Sandag – own name Huulchi – storyteller. In poetic monologues Sandag, the contents of which are teaching, complaints, sad thoughts, clearly demonstrated accusatory and critical direction in Mongolian literature. Endowed by nature, plants, animals, the gift of speech, “by providing them with the word” Sandag says plight of orphans (“Word camel, separated from the mother”), of the pain of separation (“Word tumbleweed that was taken up by the wind,” “Word of snow melting in spring “). By resorting to allegory, it depicts the hardships of life of servitude (“Word watchdog”) castigates laziness, ignorance of some officials, their bad attitude towards people, indifference to the suffering of the common people (“The good and bad officials, and clerks”). Against all evil, written in simple language close to the spoken, Sandag writings were widely circulated among the people, especially as the background of his work is the everyday life of the cattleman.
With respect to the Mongolian literature of the first half of XIX century. we can talk about individual creativity of the writer; to a certain extent that has to do Huulchi Sandag; However, a truly bright creative personality was undoubtedly Rabdzhaa (1803-1856) – a great lyricist and a person of unusual destiny. The son of a poor cattleman, who lived in the land of the current Vostochnogobiyskogo aimag in eight years was recognized as the reincarnation of the Gobi khutukhta IV (the highest rank of the spiritual hierarchy in Lamaist). That abruptly changed the life of a boy from a family of a layman – it was to become a religious leader. Rabdzhaa received the appropriate rank education; as a pilgrim visiting Amdo, the sacred mountain of China Wutai, Alashan, Beijing; He opened several monasteries. According to contemporaries, despite the high priesthood, it was easy to communicate with the laity remained joyous, was adamant the proud man; could oppose the feudal lord, do not agree with the prince. Works by D. Rabdzhaa show him not only as an educated Buddhist, but also as a man of democratic origin living heart and a clear mind.
Before we reached more than 170 poems Rabdzhaa the Mongolian language and 180 – in Tibetan. Many of them contain a cautionary maxim, philosophical reflection in other affected certain aspects of the spiritual and the everyday life of contemporary society. To create Rabdzhaa characteristic strong bond with folklore, learning the traditions of Mongolian literature, as well as the skillful use of techniques of Tibetan poetics. His deep content lyrics are different latitude range – philosophical, didactic, love. Poems Rabdzhaa traditional in their motives, they sounded the themes of love for his native land, his mother. Many of them created in the style of folk songs and kept going into the folk tradition. Rabdzhaa belong among the Mongols popular song “full of dignity,” which glorified the love and beauty of women. Love Rabdzhaa likened the beauty of nature, human life – changing seasons. With admiration he describes the face of a clear, flexible body, melodious voice, easy favorite character (“full of dignity,” “On the eight parties”). The main place in the heritage of Rabdzhaa take poetic teachings – surgaaly. In the view of the poet almost all areas of human relations, he decries such evils as envy, jealousy, mistrust (“Surgaal of the law of the universe”). In surgaale “Golden Key” sound instruction on the importance of understanding the knowledge about the necessity of good relations with each other. Rabdzhaa is the author of the first Mongolian drama “Life of the Moon Cuckoo” (based on the story of the same name of the Buddhist story); it also belongs to her music performances, implemented in 1832 Rabdzhaa – the first known large-scale poetic personality in Mongolian literature, although this literature, and remains in line with the medieval tradition, but it outlines the new trends that are important for further development, develop new there are new themes and genres.
The largest representative of the pre-revolutionary Mongolian literature is the author of the social novels Inzhan-our (1837-1891) and the poet Hishigbat (1849-1916). In modern literature there are dozens of names, particularly writers Natsagdorj, Damdinsuren, Rinchin B., C. Lodoidamba, L. Tudev, Udval S., S. Erdene, poets Charles Chimid, Yavuhulan B., C. Gaitav , playwrights Oidov Charles E. Oyuun, L. Wangan, Sengee, and others.
Many Mongolian scientists, namely, Damdinsuren, B. Rinchen, B. Sodnom, Sh Gaadamba, D. and D. Tserensodnom Yeongdong, familiar for his research on the traditions of Mongolian literature. “Overview of Mongolian literature” in three volumes, written Damdinsuren and “Literature of Mongolia” (XIII-th and beginning of XX-th century), written by D. Tserensodnom regarded as a classic.
Mongolian folklore is rich in genres: songs, epics, heroic legends, fairy tales, yoroly (good wishes), maggaaly (praise) surgaaly (teachings), legends, riddles, proverbs and sayings. Strong folklore traditions impact on survivability Mong. epic literature, the well-known legend of Geser Khan, folk epic “Djangar” (there is an equal footing with the Kalmyk) – a prosperous country Bumba and its heroes and defender Dzhangar. Epigraphic monument of written literature dating back 12-13 centuries. “The inscriptions on the rocks halhasskogo Tsokto tayiji” (1580-1637) indicate the great influence of folk song lyrics, epic about how features inherent in Mong. poetry. The model of dialogue is a work of folk songs, known as “Golden Horde manuscript on birch bark” (line 13-14 centuries., Stored in the Hermitage, Leningrad). The first known Mong. written monument – “Secret History” (not before 1240) – works by an unknown author or group of authors, it is equally true to the historical and to the literature. Literature 13-14 centuries. only fragments presented in later works – the chronicles of the 17th century., which included well-known work “The Tale of Argasun-huurch”, “Conversation orphan boy with nine Vityaz Genghis Khan”, “The Legend of the defeat of the three hundred Tayichi’ut”, later – ” Togontemura Crying, “” Legend of the khan’s wife Manduhay wise “(15 in.),” The Story of Ubashihun-Taizhou “(16 in.). On artistic merit are three chronicles of the 17th century. – Anonymous “Yellow story,” “The Golden Legend” Lubsan Dandzana, “Precious button” Sagan Secen. Variety of genres, features original Mong. the literature of the 19th century., when the author worked historical trilogy “Blue Book” and the welfare of the novel “A single-storey pavilion” Inzhinash (1837-92), a master of poetic folk satire Huulch Sandag, a group of poets – D. Ravzhaa (1803-56), Gulransa (1820-51), Ishdanzanvanzhil (1854-1907), Luvsandondov (1854-1909), Hishigbat (1849-1916), Gamal (1871-1916), the creator of allegorical story “about a dog, a cat and mouse” Genden Meeren (1820 82). This literature peculiar feudal democratic tendencies.
Since the period of the Yuan Empire (70th. 13 in. – 1368) translated literature flourished. Among her works – the poem Shanti virgin, “Kalila and Dimna” – the Iranian version of “Panchatantra”, “Hundred Thousand Songs” Tibet. poet-hermit Milarayby, a collection of aphorisms “Subashita” and others. 108 volumes “Kangyur” including, in addition to scientists treatises, works on linguistics, poetry, rhetoric, 225 volumes of “Danzhura” – Commentary on “Ganzhur” – translated through the centuries and They were printed in the 18th century. Afterwords some translations preserved the names of translators. One-Choje odser – author of poetic epilogue, commentary and translation “Bodhicharyavatara” (14 in.). Have spread came from India, many novels and short stories such as “The Magic of the Dead”, a fairy tale “Panchatantra”, the legend of King Vikramaditya. The oral transmission were walking different kit. novels. Popularity enjoyed “Water Margin” Shi Nayanya, “Three Kingdoms” Lo Kuan-chung, “Journey to the West” Wu Cheng-enya, “Dream of the Red Chamber” Cao Xue-Qin, Pu Songling novel.
After the popular revolution in 1921 Mongolia’s young literature, based on folklore, he absorbed the best traditions of the literary heritage has expanded due to the progressive world in the first place – the Russian classical and owls. literature. We have developed new genres. A special place is occupied drama. In 1929 he was created a circle of revolutionary writers, converted in 1930 in Mong. Revolutionary Writers Association. The first page of the new literature open revolutionary songs “Shiwei Kyahta”, “Red Flag”, the first amateur performances topical (“Sando Amban”, 1922). The theater appeared talents of one of the founders of modern literature Natsagdorj (1906-37), talented writers S. Buyannemekh (1902-37), M. Yadamsuren (1902-37), S. Ayushi (1904-37), D. Namdag (p. 1911). In the 20-ies. published the first Mongolian. story – “Lake Tolbo” Ulaan otorcha (alias Ts Dambadorzha, 1900-34), “The Rejected Girl” Damdinsuren (p. 1908). In the 30-ies. accounts flourished Natsagdorj who created poems, short stories, lyrical miniatures, several plays, including the first national musical drama “Three sad hill”, the first chapters of the novel “Nenanizanny pearls” and others. work. During this period the work is allocated Damdinsuren who created poems, the poem “My mother gray” (1934) – filial word of love to his mother, fidelity home. Left a deep national writers, continues traditions, Natsagdorj, Damdinsuren experienced the progressive influence of good foreign literature. Their works mark the first successes of socialist realism in literature, in Mongolia.
40-50-ies. was a time of coming to the literature of many poets and writers. Defeat of Japan. troops in the district. Khalkhin-Gol (1939), the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet. 1941-45 Union, Mongolia participated in the joint defeat of the Kwantung Army in the autumn of 1945 led to the emergence in the Mong. Literature on military topics, the extraordinary scope of acquired motives mong.-owls. friendship. The theme of solidarity with the owls. people are turning Dashdendev S. (b. 1912), D. Tsevegmed (b. 1915), Ch Lkhamsuren (b. 1917), P. Khorloo (b. 1917), D. Tarva (p. 1923). Develop a national drama.