The leading role of ethnic Mongols in the conquest of Eurasia and their subsequent long period of domination must preserve traces of this phenomenon in the culture and customs of the people. In fact, the Old Mongolian historians known code of laws “Dzhasak” Genghis Khan introduced – a set of military regulations, surviving mainly due to Persian chronicles Rashid al-Din. He says, “Yasa Chingiskhanova prohibits lying, stealing, adultery, prescribes to love his neighbor as himself, not to cause offense, and forget them completely, to spare the country and the city, to conquer voluntarily exempt from any taxes and respect the temples dedicated to God, and his servants well. ” Meaning “Dzhasaka” for statehood in the empire of Genghis Khan it is celebrated by all historians. The introduction of a set of military and civilian law will be installed on the vast territory of the Mongol Empire, a solid rule of law, failure to comply with its laws punishable by death. Yasa prescribed tolerance in matters of religion, respect for churches and clergy, banned quarrels among the Mongols, disobedience to parents of children, regulated military service, rules of conduct in combat, the distribution of the spoils of war, etc.
It should be noted that the Mongolians still preserve and revere the ancient customs of nomadic life, living in felt tents independently and ensure their existence by tribal subsistence farming.
In a classic monograph scientist-orientalist Ivan Maisky “Modern Mongolia”, published in 1921, there is an amazing observation, natural curiosity, kindness and hospitality of the Mongols. The customs of the Mongols and their character traits are reflected in this book is so full, without citing it does not do any one of the publications on this topic.
Steppe Asian nomads alien and incomprehensible to Europeans preoccupied businesslike. A man slow, sedate – their notion of respectable people; busy, hurried, impetuous – worthy of any regret.
Curiosity Mongols and their hospitality as national traits noted by many travelers today. It is worth to camp as there is nowhere equestrian rider. Nearby Mongols come to see from afar, watching the long life of the camp. After handing them small gifts, usually they left, but the next day came the other.
Mongolia has not made the move to ask the guest questions. Guest also should not rush to lay out everything about himself. In the steppe life is not rushed and the procedure dating the guest and the host is no exception. Adopted before the conversation to exchange snuff-boxes and smell of tobacco from each other, slowly drink tea, exchanging platitudes about health and weather, and only then start talking about business.
The set of beliefs and promises to take the welfare of a good attitude to the living, and what sorts of punishment sulyatsya who violate customs. You can not throw out the remains of tea, do not throw gnawed bones, give anything with your left hand, sell his favorite horse, step on the spilled milk. To scare away evil spirits have to slam three or nine times in his hands. Forbidden names of spirits considered sacred mountains, they are kept secret, not spoken aloud unless absolutely necessary.
Dig the Mongols considered extremely dangerous, as it entails misery. It is strictly forbidden to dig a knife, scraper, shovel or plow in excess of a handful. Also, you should not cut wood, hunt and even visit some of the “sacred places.” Respect for the earth was formed through the system of prohibitions. It was forbidden to unnecessarily hurt the earth with a sharp object, draw on it, to open its surface. If necessary, lay the foundation, digging of wells needed to carry out the ritual of obtaining permission for this action and ritual “serzhem” – offering gifts.
Old Mongolian society practiced a number of prohibitions related to the belief in spirits: Do not swim in the river, drawing water gold and silver utensils, cattle slaughter, cutting his throat, set foot on the threshold of the home, removing the meat from the boiler with a knife, profane fire, beat the horse bridle . Raschid al-Din said: “The practice and procedure of the Mongols are such that the spring and summer, no one is sitting in the water, do not wash hands in the river, do not draw water gold and silver utensils and spreads in the desert washed clothes, since they opinion, it is the cause of a great thunder and lightning, and they are very afraid of this and take flight. ”
Customs and traditions of the local population are rooted in the cultural heritage of the ancient peoples living in the past in Central Asia. Some of the practices are, in fact, echoes of ancient shamanistic and Buddhist rituals, religious content and the purpose of which has been lost over time, but some ritual actions are observed and portrayed is still among the locals. Many beliefs and taboos have common roots of Central Asian origin, so the same Mongols and Buryats. These include development of the cult about the cult of the mountains, the worship of Eternal Blue Sky (Huhe Munkhe Tengri). Heaven, according to the Mongols, sees all the actions and thoughts of a man who can never escape from the justice of heaven: because the Mongols, feeling the rightness shouted: “heaven, you be the judge.”
Near about it is necessary to stop and respectfully to present gifts to the spirits. If you do not have to stay and do not care to make sacrifices – no luck. According to legend Mongols, every mountain and valley has its own spirit. Man without spirits nothing. It is necessary to placate the spirits residing there and everywhere, so that they are not harmed and assisted. The Mongols it is the custom, “splashing” the spirits of the area. As a rule, before drinking alcohol slightly dropped on the table of glasses or a finger, usually anonymous, lightly touch the Alcohol and sprinkle the sides and top.
Guillaume de Rubruk describes this custom: “Whenever Mongolians gather to drink, should first put it on the four sides of the world: sprinkle three south bended knee every time, and it is done to express respect to the fire; after repeating the same, turning to the east, as an expression of respect to the air; after turning to the West for showing respect to the water; North sprinkled in memory of the dead. ” Before drinking, should drop to the spirit – the owner of the area, for that “Mongol pours on the relevant part of the land. If he drinks, sitting on a horse to drink it makes pouring her neck or mane. ”
“Fee they never washed, as they say, that God is then angry, and that there will be thunder, if they hang to dry.” Rashid al-Din reports that “the custom of the Mongols and the procedure is such that the spring and summer, no one is sitting in the water during the day, do not wash hands in water, draw water gold and silver utensils and spreads in the desert washed clothes as on They believe that is what is the cause of a great thunder and lightning, and they are very afraid of this and take flight. ”
Among the main traditions – a sacred reverence for nature. You can not harm nature. Catch or kill young birds. Hack young trees at the source. No need to tear the plants and flowers. Do not throw trash into the fire and spitting fire. We reserve the traces, for example, inverted turf debris without zatushenny fire. The source of water “Arshan” do not wash dirty things. It is impossible to break, dig up, touch serge hitching post, next to kindle a fire. Do not defile the sacred place of the bad actions, thoughts or words. You can not shout loudly and heavily drunk.
A special homage should be exercised to elders. You can not look askance, angry, cursing, tearing his bad mood on the father and mother. Application resentment senior is the same sin as to deprive a living being of life.
From ancient customs preserved a respectful attitude to the fire of his hearth. Fireplace in a yurt – dwelling place of the goddess of fire, or VT host fire – Otkha-galahan. With a fireplace and there is a high fire prohibitions, the violation of which threatens the well-being of the family. It was forbidden to pour water on the fire. You can not stick a knife into the fire, touch the fire with a knife or sharp object, get a knife from the boiler meat, throw in the fire hearth trash, rags – it offends the spirit of the home. Never give hearth fire in another house or tent. It is considered a great sin to splash the milk on the fire hearth. It was forbidden to sleep, his legs stretched out in the direction of focus: it is believed that this may frighten the spirit master of the yurt.
Fire attributed magical cleansing effects. Cleansing ritual fire was considered necessary in order not arranged or guests did not bring any harm. During Chinggisids all ambassadors, merchants with the gifts had to pass between two fires to neutralize bad intentions, that could be. The case when the Mongols ruthlessly executed only Russian ambassadors for refusing to pass between two fires before bidding Khan. Cleansing fire is widely used today in the Siberian shamanic practices.
The custom of hospitality. Until now, there is a belief: the more visitors will glance the first New Year’s Day in the yurt, the happier will be the year has arrived. Raised his guest tea hostess in deference delivers a bowl with both hands. Guest must also take it with both hands, he shows respect for the house. In Mongolia and Buryatia is the custom of the right hand. Bowl at the welcoming ceremony transmit only the right hand. And of course, you need to make any offering to the right hand or both hands.
To emphasize the special respect, as a sign of welcome guest served two arms, hands folded, as in Buddhist bowing, shaking hands in this case is done simultaneously with both hands.
When visiting Buddhist temples you must first bypass the temple during sun turning all the prayer wheels. Inside the temple, moving clockwise and do not enter into it in the shorts. You can not take place in the center of the church during the service and take pictures without permission. Inside the temple to avoid moving and bustling action, talk loudly.
Since the “Yasa of Genghis Khan” Mongolian taboo became the basis of the Mongolian society. Here are some of them:
You can not look askance, angry, swear, curse, tearing his bad mood on the father and mother. This is the same sin as to deprive a living being of life.
If the son is good saves father’s name, he will also be around happy.
You can not cross the road in front of elders, the elderly. These insults, disrespect for elders.
Those who lose their old customs, is despised by all and smear his own name.
It is impossible to show the palms to another person. It is believed that the lines on the palm reflect a person’s fate. Therefore, the Mongols hide his hands from the others.
It is impossible without the need to tear the plants and flowers.
It is forbidden to kill animals with cubs.
The source of water do not wash your dirty clothes and wash with soap and water. Such actions are considered a source of defilement.
Do not walk “to the wind” in the direction of the North Star. The north side of the Mongols is honorable.
Never give fire (hearth) to another house or yurt (with the exception only to their relatives). It is forbidden to take fire from a stranger.
You can not put the tent in the place where previously housed the wrong tent.
You can not set foot on the ashes. Mongolia believes that the ash leaves its traces of the soul of the deceased person.
At a meeting not kiss, just touch each other’s cheeks.
It is forbidden to give a knife, sharp objects.
When he came to visit, the main prize is not immediately show only give the care. Gifts presented, not all at once, but one by one throughout the meeting.
When the eclipse of the sun, the moon is prohibited: eat, drink, sleep and lie down.
If spilled on the ground or mare’s milk wine, the lightning will strike the horses.
If you shed a lot of wine, the lightning probably get into the house.
Intentional spilled wine or milk Mongols regarded as malicious magic against homes and animals.
Mongolian woman is not brushing her hair in the man.
The Mongols are not accepted without asking the owners to enter the tent. You can not go into the tent quiet, quietly, looking around. It is necessary to file-Voice or cough. Thus, the guest hosts makes it clear that he has no hostile intentions.
You can not step on the threshold of the yurt. On the eve of the yurt is prohibited to sit, stand and talk with the visitor.
It should not cover his head dress, lay both his hands around the neck or braid them back
It is forbidden to bring weapons into the tent. He decided to leave the threshold. Visitors must take off their arms and leave it on the right side. Remove the onions from the saydaka, lower the bow, do not leave in the quiver of arrows.
The guest yurt can not sit without permission on the north – side of Honor. Guests are kindly indicate his place. He should not sit down anywhere.
Before entering the tent, you can not go “to the wind” (easing). It is considered an insult and disrespect to the owners of the yurt.
It is impossible to go on a visit to the owners of the yurt with his sleeves rolled up, with a shovel or other excavating tools. According to Mongolian custom roll up their sleeves Mongols funeral, and digging tools made to the yurt is considered a bad omen.
You can not come to visit with empty dishes. It is necessary in a bowl to put anything to the happiness of the yurt was not blown into an empty container.
It is considered impolite to help the owners: to transfer food to serve guests. You can not leave without trying the treat owners.
You can not stand to drink vodka. Observing the customs of the table, it is necessary to have a drink sitting proposed vodka.
At the bottom of the bowls is not customary to leave remnants of tea in a cup and throw leftovers and scraps.
At the feast, guests can not change their seats.
When the offer refreshments, do not take it with one hand, made a sign of respect to take refreshments with both hands.
Happy day for the start of the case is considered to be a full moon or the beginning of the lunar month.
Inside the temple walls, on the monastery land, “it is impossible to kill the animals here can not make vodka and wine, you can not leave a woman to spend the night, or possible only with the permission of the monastery.”
It is considered humiliating reading the books with people uninitiated for fun, laughing and shouting in different voices.
You can not drink the water with the animals – without distinction whether the drink for washing, bathing in the dresses, utensils, toothpicks, watering the grass and so forth.
Spiritual persons are prohibited from touching the jewelry. By this rule prohibited all pick up the jewelry, as well as secular musical instruments, weapons of war, as all contribute to the amusement of the spirit.